United States Department of Agriculture
Siskiyou National Forest
200 NE Greenfield Road
Grants Pass, OR 97526-0242
Reply to: 2800
Date: October 16, 1995
Subject: A comparison of stream materials moved by mining suction dredge operations to the natural sediment yield rates
To: The Record
A question that has frequently been asked is how much material is moved by annual mining suction dredge activities on the Siskiyou National Forest and how does this figure compare with the natural movement of such materials by surface erosion and mass movement? At the conclusion of the 1995 summer suction dredge season, the responsible minerals personnel on each Ranger District of the Siskiyou National Forest were asked to make a quantitative estimate of the number of cubic yards of material that was moved over the season by suction dredge operations. The estimates were based on on-the-ground observations carried out over the summer. Quantities of moved material ranged from 23 to 1920 cubic yards per district with a Forest total of 2413 cubic yards for the season.
Three documents were examined to determine a reasonable estimate of natural sediment yield rates. A published 1985 study by Michael P. Ainaranthus et al entitled "Logging and Forest Roads Related to Increased Debris Slides in Southwestern Oregon" found that natural erosion rates for debris slides in the Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon averaged about 0.5 cubic yards per acre per year. This same study found that erosion rates on roads and landings were 100 times those on undisturbed areas, while erosion on harvested areas was seven times that of undisturbed areas. In another study (unpublished) done in 1988 by Jon Vanderheyden et al entitled "Siskiyou National Forest Silver Fire Recovery Process Paper", surface and channel erosion rates were estimated and then an estimate of total natural erosion rates was made by summing a debris slide rate with surface and channel rates. The debris slide rate was developed for the Siskiyou National Forest from an inventory that examined landslide activity between 1956 - 1976 on 137,000 acres of the Forest. This 1985 study estimated that baseline sediment yield (total natural erosion rate) in the Silver Creek basin averaged about 14.2 tons per acre per decade. For the Indigo Creek basin sediment yield averaged 8.0 tons per acre per decade. Putting these figures on an annual basis and using a generally accepted average of 1.5 tons per cubic yard of material would produce sediment yields of 0.95 and 0.53 cubic yards per acre per year for Silver and Indigo Creeks respectively. The Siskiyou National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan of 1989 estimated that the average natural sediment yield rate for the Forest from both mass movement and surface erosion was 0.5 tons per acre per year. This figure equals about 0.33 cubic yards per acre per year and is the most conservative of the natural sediment yield figures found in the literature readily available.
There are 1,092,302 acres on the Siskiyou Natural Forest. Using a factor of 0.33 cubic yards per acre per year times 1,092,302 acres will produce a very conservative estimate that 331,000 cubic yards of material move each year from natural causes compared to the 2413 cubic yards that was moved by suction dredge mining operations in 1995 on the Siskiyou. This would be a movement rate by suction dredge mining that equals about 0.7% of natural rates.
/s/ Michael F. Cooley
MICHAEL F. COOLEY
Recreation, Lands and Minerals Staff Officer, Siskiyou National Forest